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Электронное научное издание 
Альманах Пространство и Время
ISSN 2227-9490
Электронное научное издание
Альманах Пространство и Время
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]
Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” | The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject


 
УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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Рефлексия / Reflection / Reflexion

 

Шаньков М.Ю.

Кто мы такие и кого растим? Размышления о судьбах художественной школы

 

Шаньков Михаил Юрьевич, художник, член-корреспондент Российской академии художеств, профессор, заведующий кафедрой академического и анатомического рисунка Российской академии живописи, ваяния и зодчества

E-mail: mshankov@yahoo.com

 

Статья представляет собой размышления художника и педагога о путях развития художественной школы. В своем эссе автор рассматривает как школу далекого прошлого, так и ту, которую в свое время прошел сам. Также использованы наблюдениями из собственной педагогической практики автора. Сформулировано понимание влияния школы на феномен творческой личности в контексте ее предназначения. Главная задача исследования — охарактеризовать черты отечественной художественной школы наших дней.

 

Ключевые слова: искусство, Академия художеств, художественная школа, реализм, рисунок, живопись, композиция, художественное училище, учитель, ученик, художник, красота, современность, традиция, старые мастера, творчество, картина, натура, образ времени, история, сюжет, художественная студия, свобода творчества.

 

Литератра

 

Авсиян О.А. Композиция. На пути к творчеству. М.: Линор, 2004.

Авсиян О.А. Натура и рисование по представлению. М.: Изобразительное искусство, 1985.

Анточча Л., Кастель А., Чанки М., Галуцци П., Лоренца Д., Папа Р., Пердетти К. Леонардо. Жизнь и творчество. М.: Белый город. 2001.

Виноградов И. Александр Иванов в письмах, документах и воспоминаниях. М.: XXI век — согласие, 2001.

Барановский В.И., Хлебникова И.Б. Антон Ажбе и художники России. М.: МГУ, 2001.

Бенуа А.Н. История живописи всех времен и народов. СПб.: Нева, 2002.

Кеменов В.С. В.И.Суриков. Историческая живопись 1870—1890. М.: Искусство, 1987.

Климов Г. Иван Билибин. М.: Терра, 1999.

Мастера искусства об искусстве. Избранные отрывки из писем, дневников, речей и трактатов: В 4 т. / Под общ. ред. Д.Аркина и Б.Терновца. М. — Л.: ОГИЗ — ИЗОГИЗ, 1937—1939.

Подобедова О. Дмитрий Николаевич Кардовский. М.: Советский художник, 1957.

Репин И.Е. Далекое близкое. Л.: Художник РСФСР, 1982.

Сысоев В.П. Александр Дейнека. Живопись, графика, скульптура, мозаика. Л.: Аврора, 1982.

Andrew Wyeth Autobiography. Introduction by Thomas Hoving. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky& Konecky, 1995.

Arnheim R. The Power of the Center: A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983.

Beltinger K., Englisch G., Gros D., Herm C., Stoll, A. "A Technical Study of Ferdinand Hodler's Painting Technique: Work in Progress." ICOM Committee for Conservation, ICOM-CC: 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 Sept. 2002. Preprints. London: James & James, 2002, volume 1, pp. 388—393.

Cowling E., Mundy J. On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism, 1910—1930. London: Tate Gallery, 1990.

Darts D. "Art Education for a Change: Contemporary Issues and the Visual Arts." Art Education 59.5 (2006): 6—12.

Gudiol J. Velazquez 1599—1660: sa vie, son œuvre, son évolution. Paris & Barcelone: Cercle d'Art; Poligrafa S.A., 1975.

Hirsh S.L. Ferdinand Hodler. New York: George Braziller Inc., 1982.

Knox G., ed. The Late Paintings of Velázquez: Theorizing Painterly Performance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2009.

Kranzfelder I. Edward Hopper 1882—1967: Vision of Reality. Köln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 2010.

Lucie-Smith E. American Realism. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1994.

Mallén E. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.

Müller-Tamm P., ed. Henri Matisse: Figure, Color, Space. Düsseldorf: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2005.

Puttfarken T. The Discovery of Pictorial Composition: Theories of Visual Order in Painting 1400—1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

Puglisi C. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. London: Phaidon Inc. Ltd., 1998.

Whistler C. "Life Drawing in Venice from Titian to Tiepolo." Master Drawings 42.4 (2004): 370—396.

 

 

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Шаньков, М. Ю. Кто мы такие и кого растим? Размышления о судьбах художественной школы [Электронный ресурс] / М.Ю. Шаньков // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2015. — Т. 8. — Вып. 1: Пространство и время образования — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast8-1.2015.71

 

 

 

Shankov M.Yu.

Who We Are and Whom We Raise? Reflections on the Fates of Artistic School

 

Mikhail Yu. Shankov, painter, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Arts, Professor, Head of the Chair of Academic and Anatomical Drawings, Russian Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

E-mail: mshankov@yahoo.com

 

Already for teens, desire to get artistic education means choosing this or that artistic school, because it is impossible to become an artist without such school. The whole cycle of learning in visual arts takes place in the framework of this or that artistic school: the preparation for exams in a particular art school, intensive training (grinding) in painting and drawing, exams and learning in high learning institution of artistic profile on a particular program and thesis defense. However, in our time, ideas about artistic school have undergone significant changes in comparison with even the 19th century both in the public consciousness as a whole, and among the artistic community in particular.

My article is an essay on ways of traditional (realistic) artistic school, and within the framework of this essay, objects of my research are the features of Russian artistic school of our days. In my essay, I examine both the artistic school of the past, and one through which I myself passed in my time. I also used observations from my own teaching practice and try to formulate an understanding of the artistic school impact on the phenomenon of the creative personality in the context of its mission. To this end, I use the general philosophical methodology (ascent from the particular to the general, the unity of the logical and historical), as well as methodology of the comparative approach to such elements of artistic school, as plot, composition, drawing (life drawing and drawing from imagination), and color.

As a result, I have shown that the basis of the most innovative artistic schools is always the complex of academic and realist traditions, on which the best national artists were trained. In turn, without interrelations with the traditional culture, national visual art and artistic schools lose their uniqueness and artistic value. At all times, artistic school in visual art was founded on the study of classical paintings and drawings. Now to save this school, I consider it necessary to analyze not only the masterpieces of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but also creative works of the earlier masters. Thus, for the understanding of individual figures, rhythms and beauty of silhouettes, it is important to analyze the Phidias’ reliefs of the Parthenon. It is also necessary to study more deeply the best examples of world visual art heritage. Students of art schools need to know works of Japanese masters, French impressionists, paintings of Vincent Van Gogh, Henri Matisse, closely examine the Russian Silver Age and the best examples of Soviet and modern European and American painting.

However, the artistic school is not only a talent foundry, which trains artisans capable of skillfully handle the art materials. Artistic school should include brainstorming and sentimental education; this school should teach how to reproduces the delicate picturesque nuances and how to find an adequate language to realize artistic intent. Without the development of these creative components of the educational process by master together with his pupils, there will be nobody who afterwards will reflect the history of our time in picturesque images.

I conclude that for preservation and development of Russian art school, is necessary that not only teachers were aware of whom they train. It is also important that students understand, by whom they will grow up. To save the Russian artistic school is crucial to preserve academic artistic training, as well as bring up love for the true values, to the motherland, to native culture to the country's history. Only in this case we will be able educate a generation of artists that could reflect in their creative works both the spirit Russian culture, and the spirit of our times.

 

Keywords: visual art, Academy of Arts, artistic school, realism, drawing, painting, composition, art school, teacher, student, artist, beauty, modernity, tradition, old masters, creative work, picture, life model, image of time, history, plot, art studio, freedom to create.

 

References:

 

Andrew Wyeth Autobiography. Introduction by Thomas Hoving. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky& Konecky, 1995.

Antoccia L., Chastel A., Cianchi M., Galluzzi P., Laurenza D., Papa R., Pedretti C. Leonardo: Art and Science. Moscow: Bely gorod Publisher, 2001. (In Russian).

Arkin D., Ternovets B., eds. Masters of the Art about Art. Selected Passages from Letters, Diaries, Speeches and Treatises. Moscow and Leningrad: OGIZ Publisher & IZOGIZ Publisher, 1937—1939, 4 volumes. (In Russian).

Arnheim R. The Power of the Center: A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983.

Avsiyan O.A. Composition. On the Way to Creative Work. Moscow: Linor Publisher, 2004. (In Russian).

Avsiyan O.A. Life Model and Drawing from Imagination. Moscow: Fine Art Publisher, 1985. (In Russian).

Baranovsky V.I., Khlebnikova I.B. Anton Ažbe and Painters of Russia. Moscow: Moscow State University Publisher, 2001. (In Russian).

Beltinger K., Englisch G., Gros D., Herm C., Stoll A. "A Technical Study of Ferdinand Hodler's Painting Technique: Work in Progress." ICOM Committee for Conservation, ICOM-CC: 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22—27 Sept. 2002. Preprints. London: James & James, 2002, volume 1, pp. 388—393.

Benois A.N. History of Painting of All Times and Nations. St. Petersburg: Neva Publisher, 2002. (In Russian).

Cowling E., Mundy J. On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism, 1910—1930. London: Tate Gallery, 1990.

Darts D. "Art Education for a Change: Contemporary Issues and the Visual Arts." Art Education 59.5 (2006): 6—12.

Gudiol J. Velazquez 1599—1660: sa vie, son œuvre, son évolution. Paris & Barcelone: Cercle d'Art; Poligrafa S.A., 1975.

Hirsh S.L. Ferdinand Hodler. New York: George Braziller Inc., 1982.

Kemenov V.S. Vasily Surikov. Historical Painting 1870—1890. Moscow: Iskusstvo Publisher, 1987. (In Russian).

Klimov G. Ivan Bilibin. Moscow: Terra Publisher, 1999. (In Russian).

Knox G., ed. The Late Paintings of Velázquez: Theorizing Painterly Performance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2009.

Kranzfelder I. Edward Hopper 1882—1967: Vision of Reality. Köln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 2010.

Lucie-Smith E. American Realism. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1994.

Mallén E. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.

Müller-Tamm P., ed. Henri Matisse: Figure, Color, Space. Düsseldorf: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2005.

Podobedova O. Dmitry Kardovsky. Moscow: Sovetsky khudozhnik Publisher, 1957. (In Russian).

Puglisi C. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. London: Phaidon Inc. Ltd., 1998.

Puttfarken T. The Discovery of Pictorial Composition: Theories of Visual Order in Painting 1400—1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

Repin I.E. Dalekoe Blizkoe [The Distant and the Close, an Autobiography]. Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR Publisher, 1982. (In Russian).

Sysoev V.P. Alexander Deineka. Painting, Drawing, Sculpture, Mosaic. Leningrad: Aurora Publisher, 1982. (In Russian).

Vinogradov I. Alexander Ivanov in Letters, Documents and Memoirs. Moscow: XXI vek — soglasie Publisher, 2001. (In Russian).

Whistler C. "Life Drawing in Venice from Titian to Tiepolo." Master Drawings 42.4 (2004): 370—396.

 

 

Cite MLA 7:

Shankov, M. Yu. "Who We Are and Whom We Raise? Reflections on the Fates of Artistic School."  Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya: ‘Prostranstvo i vremya obazovaniya’ [Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time: 'The Space and Time of Education’]  8.1 (2015). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast8-1.2015.71>. (In Russian).

 

 

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