Home
Издается при поддержке Научного совета РАН по изучению и охране культурного и природного наследия и Проблемной комиссии РАН "Хронобиология и хрономедицина"

Powered by Scientific Council for Study and Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage, and Problem Commission ‘Chronobiology and Chronomedicine’, Russian Academy of Science
Электронное научное издание 
Альманах Пространство и Время
ISSN 2227-9490
Электронное научное издание
Альманах Пространство и Время
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]
Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” | The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject


 
УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
пр_en1.png

Закрыть
Логин:
Пароль:
Забыли свой пароль?
Регистрация
  Войти      Регистрация



Войти в корпоративную почту как автор/член редколлегии/рецензент журнала

Логин:

@j-spacetime.com

Пароль:

(что это)

Крымский философский клуб

Крымский травник

Каспийский Диалог 2016





Институт религиозных конфессий и организаций с позиций русской политологической школы

Елишев С.О.

Институт религиозных конфессий и организаций с позиций русской политологической школы

Елишев Сергей Олегович, кандидат социологических наук, доцент кафедры истории и теории социологии социологического факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова

E-mail: elishev@list.ru

Религиозные конфессии и организации являются вторым по значимости после государства институтом политической системы общества. В традициях русской политологической школы (прежде всего, в работах К.П. Победоносцева, Б.Н. Чичерина и Л.А. Тихомирова) рассмотрение данного института, обозначаемого как «Церковь», происходило сквозь призму взаимоотношения Церкви с государством. В настоящее время применительно к системе взаимоотношений государства и религиозных конфессий и организаций употреблять понятие «Церковь» будет не совсем корректно, поскольку в системе религиоведческих дисциплин, и прежде всего социологии религии, стало общепринятым выделять четыре типа религиозных организаций: церковь, секту, деноминацию, культ.

Ключевые слова: религиозные конфессии и организации, Церковь, симфония Церкви и государства, признанная Церковь, государственная Церковь.

Elishev S.O. Institution of Religious Faiths and Organizations from the Position of the Russian School of Political Science

Sergey O. Elishev, PhD (Sociology), Associate Professor at the Chair of History and Theory of Sociology, Lomonosov Moscow State University Sociological Faculty

E-mail: elishev@list.ru

Following of the state, religious confessions and organizations are the second most important institution of the political system of the society. It is a traditions of the Russian school of political science (especially in the works of Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Boris Chicherin, and Lev Tikhomirov) to scrutinize the institution, that denoted as the "Church" in the light of the relationship between church and state.

According to К. Pobedonostsev, one of the significant events of contemporary society was the struggle between ecclesiastical principles and state ones, and the main source of this struggle was "the artificially created theory of the relationship between church and state". K. Pobedonostsev identifies three systems of relationships between church and state, according to which those relations were manifested in the West European history. The first system is a system of state church. The state recognizes one religion and provides supports and protects one 'true' church, not recognizing other churches as true in various forms. The second system presupposes equally impartial attitude of the state to all faiths without recognizing or persecuting of any church. This state policy gives to each church to arrange their affairs and ceremonies at their own discretion. It is a system of equality of churches, or a system of "free church in a free state". The third system implies that the state refrains from any preference or patronage to a particular religion or belief, the only limits or prohibits such beliefs that recognizes false or harmful to society. This system is based on the assumption that much easier to determine which belief is false than which one is true.

In his turn, Boris Chicherin identifies four possible systems that define the relationship and the situation of the church in the state. These are: (1) a theocracy, which is subjection of state to church, (2) the dominant church, (3) the recognition church, and (4) the bearable church; different systems may co-exist with respect to different religions. Classification of theocracy as particular type of relationship between the state and the church is just only difference in classifications of K. Pobedonostsev and B. Chicherin despite the fact that they are the representatives of opposing tendencies of conservative and liberal trends of Russian political science.

L. Tikhomirov, considering the history of the monarchical form of statehood, identified three types of relations between the state and religion: (1) transformation of the supreme state power to the center of religion with varying degrees of deification of the monarch (paganism, caesaropapism), (2) the state institutions' subjection to the church (the power of the priests, papocaesarism), (3) an alliance of the state and the Church, which is achieved by the subordination of monarch to the religious idea and by the fact that he himself belongs to the church, whilst maintaining of his sovereignty. L. Tikhomirov considered that the optimal form of the relation between church and state is allied relationship which is inherent primarily to Orthodox monarchy. Only in those states, in his view, is possible to preserve the religious ethical principles’ independence from the state ones without estrangement between the Church and the State.

In this context, author believes, that currently is not quite correct to use the term "church" applied to the system relations between state and religious confessions and organizations, because it is become generally accepted in the religious studies disciplines, especially the sociology of religion to distinguish four types of religious organizations, such as church, sect, denomination, cult. Author also analyzes the relationship between the Russian state and the traditional Russian confessions and discusses some difficulties in the exactly determining of the number of adherents of traditional religions and denominations.

Keywords: religious denominations and organizations, the Church, the symphony of church and state, recognized church, the state church.

Читать статью / Read more