Издается при поддержке Научного совета РАН по изучению и охране культурного и природного наследия, Проблемной комиссии РАН "Хронобиология и хрономедицина" и Российского философского общества

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Электронное научное издание 
Альманах Пространство и Время
ISSN 2227-9490
Электронное научное издание
Альманах Пространство и Время
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]
Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” | The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject


ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России

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Отечественная война 1812 года: уроки и выводы

Даниленко И.С.

Отечественная война 1812 года: уроки и выводы

Даниленко Игнат Семенович, доктор философских наук, профессор, главный научный сотрудник Военно-научного комитета Вооруженных сил Российской Федерации, главный научный сотрудник Военного университета Министерства обороны РФ, генерал-майор в отставке

E-mail: isdanilenko@mail.ru

В отличие от исторического военнонаучное и, тем более, политико-философское осмысление Отечественной войны 1812 года остается недостаточным. Статья представляет собой авторский взгляд на главные геополитические и военно-стратегические уроки кампаний 1812—1813 гг.

Ключевые слова: уроки Отечественной войны 1812 г., мирно-военные отношения, военная наука, стратегия, историософия, философия войны.

Danilenko I.S. 1812 Patriotic War: Lessons and Conclusions

Ignat S. Danilenko, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Chief Researcher at the Military Scientific Committee of the Russian Federation Armed Forces, Chief Researcher at Military University of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence, Major General Retired

E-mail: isdanilenko@mail.ru

In contrast to the historical science, the political, military scientific, and especially philosophical understanding of 1812 Patriotic War is inadequate. Here is the author's view on the major geopolitical and military-strategic lessons of campaigns of 1812—1813, viz.:

(1) lessons and conclusions from the analysis of the historical situation in Europe and the world in the late eighteenth century and the first decade of the nineteenth century, which led to Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812.

Russia became the object of Napoleon's military adventure first of all because it did not have its own higher socio-political and geopolitical strategy. Dangers of becoming a participant of another’s war or to be the intermediate victim of armed aggression are remaining a reality of nowadays. The means of solving those problems are the wisdom and the high art of politics. This is the main lesson and practical conclusion for the present from the experience of the War of 1812.

(2) lessons and conclusions that follow directly from the experience of Russian politics and art of preparation and conduct of the war against Napoleon's invasion.

National character of the war is a necessary condition of its victorious conclusion, even with the initial and subsequent temporary setback. This, however, does not constitute grounds for denial of the value of the political and military leadership of the war. Unorganized and headless population of the country cannot win the war, even if numbers of this population is high.

A very interesting lesson from 1812 is connected with the problem of frontier, until which country should wage the war. The situation is the war of 1812 in this regard is very instructive. At first glance, the war with the aggressor should be carried to its complete defeat. But it is at first glance and in terms of the psychology of military struggle. From a geopolitical and political point of view may be otherwise.

(3) lessons and conclusions arising from the experience of the post-war policy of Russia in the major directions of its further historical development.

(a) Since the War of 1812, Russia for two hundred years has been in a certain sense doomed to be the victim and the hero in the war, and then to the role of the debtor of its Western allies for its military supplies in all coalitional wars. Generosity towards other nations and states, and deafness to the needs and to the disaster of its own people is a characteristic feature of the Russian authorities, and indeed of the propertied classes.

(b) The post-war enthusiasm for the foreign affairs to the detriment of solving of internal problems is not justified and is flawed for the development of the country. Inability to solve successfully the problems of internal development is not compensating for the external charity and peace-making activity.

(c) Has matured paradigm shift in military science, and to begin this difficult but necessary work should be with the study of two historical trends in the development and confrontation in military science, formed on the basis of the experience of Patriotic War 1812, viz. with the analysis of Jomini and Clausewitz' works.

Keywords: lessons of Patriotic War 1812, peacefully-military relations, military science, strategy, historiosophy, philosophy of war.

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