ISSN 2227-9490
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Издается при поддержке Научного совета РАН по изучению и охране культурного и природного наследия,
Проблемной комиссии РАН "Хронобиология и хрономедицина" и Российского философского общества

Powered by Scientific Council for Study and Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage,
Problem Commission ‘ Chronobiology and Chronomedicine’, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian Philosophical Society

ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
 АЛЬМАНАХ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЕТЯХ 

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УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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Крымский философский клуб

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Каспийский Диалог 2016



2016. Том 12. Выпуск 2.

Новикова О.В.

Природа книги. Генетика книжного текста.

Новикова Орина Владимировна, бакалавр в сфере массовых коммуникаций и связей с общественностью, выпускница Философского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова; ООО «Культурос», Москва

ORCID  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8303-8498

E-mail: orina-v-novikova@j-spacetime.com; orina.novikova@gmail.com

В статье на базе методологического натурализма предпринят анализ смыслового наполнения метафоры «книга — живой организм» как концепта с целью изучения феномена книги — ее природы и особенностей ее бытия в пространстве человека. Вводится понятие «генетики книжного текста», исследуется особенности трансляции культурного кода в масштабе и посредством книжного текста и роль данного кода в жизнедеятельности живого организма книги, а также связанные с этим типы читателей. Рассматривается способ изучения книги в качестве «узора на ковре» мировой литературы.

Ключевые слова:книга; генетика книжного текста; культурный код; биологизм; аналогия; ДНК; язык; чтение; текст; автор; читатель; культурный артефакт.

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Новикова, О. В. Природа книги. Генетика книжного текста [Электронный ресурс] / О.В. Новикова // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2016. — Т. 12. — Вып. 2. — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast12-2.2016.32.


Novikova O.V.

Nature of Book. Genetics of Book Text

Orina V. Novikova, BA (Communication & Public Relations), Philosophical Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University graduated,  project manager at CULTUROS L.L.C., Moscow

ORCID  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8303-8498

E-mail: orina-v-novikova@j-spacetime.com; orina.novikova@gmail.com

In his book The Selfish Gene, R. Dawkins coined the concept of ‘meme’. By this term, he designates cultural information unit (analogue of gene in genetics) that has capacity to be copied or transmitted from one media to another, and that is mutable, including as subject to both natural and artificial selection. I suppose, this idea is very fruitful for understanding nature of book (book text) as human-created cultural phenomenon (cultural artifact). Of course, on the one hand, this kind of biologism has always been criticized by authoritative philosophers and cultural scientists. But for all that, on the other hand, I believe it is difficult to understand what is the meaning contained in metaphor ‘living book’, and what is book's ‘way of being’ in the human world and in the world of culture without understanding of biosocial nature of human as such.

The subject matter of my article is research potential of metaphor ‘book is a living organism’ for studying the phenomenon of the book and features of its being in human space. For this purpose, I use close analogy method and discourse analysis within the framework of the methodological naturalism, i.e. extension of the most common principles, methods, and even some of the specific concepts and terms of natural sciences to the social and socio-cultural spheres, based on the analogy between organisms and their communities, on the one hand, and man and society, on the other. In my research, I also base on Roman Jakobsons’s ideas about the profound similarity of the genetic and linguistic codes. Morpheme or a letter in his theory is a kind of analogue of nitrogen bases, which with a certain error can be equated to the nucleotide. Several morphemes or letters (‘nucleotides’) are grouped in a word (‘codon / triplet’; at the same time, of course, in living languages, the word is not always of the three morphemes), ‘codons’ are connected in a phrase (‘gene’). In turn, the phrases (‘genes’) are arranged in the text (‘nucleotide sequence’, i.e. a kind of analog nucleic acids, DNA or RNA).

In my article, I consistently prove my hypothesis that a book, being a creation of man, has biosocial nature similar to human on, i.e., it is a kind of living organisms. Jakobson’s approach allows me to draw close analogy between biological genetic code as such (encoding the biosynthesis of proteins from amino acids) and cultural one (encoding meanings from language units by means of book texts and cultural texts in whole). On the assumption of Jakobson’s idea, I define genetic code of a book as linguistic code, parts of which are letters or morphemes (linguistics analogues of nucleotides), and this is a code which embodies rules for constructing words. Of course, genetic code is the basis of life of organism, but book is not a totality of words, it is their relationship that creates more complex structure (text). This required considering the principle of the origin of the text, i.e., genetics of book text and enabled me to identify that meaning of the book is coded twice in the lexical media: (i) at the level of text structure (concord of lexical items, with the help of living language), and (ii) at the level of meanings of the text (harmonization of meanings of lexical items and the entire text, with the help of cultural code). Feature of genetics of book text is that it always is binary: one and the same text is created by author and by reader, i.e. twice. This means that ‘book text written by author’ and ‘book text that reader read’ have different genetics (different heredity and variability).

The concept of ‘mechanism of heredity and variation of the book text’ I understand as (i) manifestation of the influence of reader’s baggage of a writer in his works, (ii) 'information transfer’ between different pieces within series of books, united by the same characters, (iii) authors’ imitation of the most recognized works of famous writers among their great contemporaries, have earned the reputation of classics while alive (‘books’ mimicry’); (iv) book reading by readers of different cultural levels (which are therefore able to extract and produce different meanings).

I conclude that book as a kind of living organism is a tree, but not rhizome, as opposed to what G. Deleuze and F. Guattari write. Moreover, a book is not merely a tree, but the true Tree of Life: it is image of the ‘beginning’, image of source of cultural information that ‘gives rise’ to human as a social and spiritual subject. Book is portable media of information, which human cannot transmit naturally, through birth, but which he can materialize as a cultural artifact that is separate from the human body and that lives longer than human individual. He can spread (transmit) this information through the perception of such artifact — this is the way in which humanity ensures its immortality. Nature of a book is as much biological, as social; its genetic code in cooperation with the cultural capital of author and reader ensures the existence of book text and reproduction of understanding its contents throughout generations of readers.

Keywords: book; genetics of text book; cultural code; analogy; biologism; DNA; language; reading; text; author; reader; cultural artifact.

Cite MLA 7:

Novikova, O. V. "Nature of Book. Genetics of Book Text." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 12.2(2016). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast12-2.2016.32>. (In Russian).

 

 

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