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ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
 АЛЬМАНАХ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЕТЯХ 

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УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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2015. Том 10. Выпуск 1. ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ ТЕКСТА / SPACE AND TIME OF THE TEXT / RAUM UND ZEIT DES TEXTES


ЧИТАТЬ ПРИРОДУ / TO READ THE NATURE / DIE NATUR LESEN



Волошин М.Ю.

Интерпретация генома как текста: основания и исторические предпосылки

 

Волошин Михаил Юрьевич, студент Философского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, кафедра философии и методологии науки

E-mail: allrour95@rambler.ru

 

Распространенная в генетике интерпретация генома как текста не является аналогией, основанной лишь на их внешнем сходстве. Она представляет собой логическое следствие развития генетики до середины XX века, исходит из структурных особенностей генома и обладает значительными эвристическими возможностями.

 

Ключевые слова: генетика, генетический код, геном, ДНК, РНК, информация, семантика, синтаксис, текст.

 

Литература 

Голубовский М.Д. Век генетики: эволюция идей и понятий. СПб.: Борей Арт, 2000.

Докинз Р. Капеллан дьявола: размышления о надежде, лжи, науке и любви. М.: АСТ: Corpus, 2013.

Кольцов Н.K. Физико-химические основы морфологии // Кольцов Н.С. Организация клетки. Сборник экспериментальных исследований, статей и речей. М.: Биомедгиз, 1936. С. 461—490.

Любищев А.А. О природе наследственных факторов. Пермь: 2 тип. «Пермполиграф», 1925. (Известия Биологического Научно-Исследовательского Института при Пермском Государственном Университете, издаваемые Советом Института).

Мендель Г. Опыты над растительными гибридами. М.: ОГИЗ — СЕЛЬХОЗГИЗ, 1935.

Морган Т.Г. Структурные основы наследственности. М. — Пг.: Государственное издательство, 1924.

Назаров В.И. Эволюция не по Дарвину: смена эволюционной модели. М.: Издательство ЛКИ, 2007.

Риккерт Г. Границы естественнонаучного образования понятий. СПб.: Наука, 1997.

Степин В.С. История и философия науки. М.: Академический проект, 2013.

Фогель Ф., Мотульски А. Генетика человека: проблемы и подходы: В 3 т. Т. 1. М.: Мир, 1989.

Франк-Каменецкий М.Д. Королева живой клетки: от структуры ДНК к биотехнологической революции. М.: АСТ-ПРЕСС КНИГА, 2010.

Avery O., Macleod C., McCarty M. "Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III." Journal of Experimental Medicine 79 (1944): 137—158.

Benzer S. "The Elementary Units of Heredity." The Chemical Basis of Heredity. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins Press, 1957, pp. 70—93.

Benzer S., Champe S. "A Change from Nonsense to Sense in the Genetic Code." Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sceinces, USA 48 (1962): 1114—1121.

Crick F. "On Protein Synthesis." The Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 12 (1958): 138—163.

Crow E.W., Crow J.F. "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the Chromosome Theory of Heredity." Genetics 160 (2002): 1—4.

Demerec M. "What Is A Gene?." Journal of Heredity 24 (1933): 368—378.

Gamow G. "Possible Relation between Desoxyribonucleic Acids and Protein Structures." Nature 173 (1954): 318.

Gamow G., Ycas M. "Statistical Correlation of Protein and Ribonucleic Acids Composition." Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sceinces, USA 41 (1955): 1011—1019.

Garrod A. "The Incidence of Alkaptonuria: A Study in Chemical Individuality." Lancet 2 (1902): 1616—1620.

Jacob F., Monod J. "Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms in the Synthesis of Proteins." Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (1961): 318—356.

Morgan T.H. "Croonian Lecture. On the Mechanism of Heredity." Proceedings of the Royal Society 94 (1922): 162—197.

Nirenberg M. "The Genetic Code. Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1968." Nobel Lectures: Physiology or Medicine (1962—1970). Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1972, pp. 372—395.

Pauling L., Corey R. "A Proposed Structure of the Nucleic Acids." Nature 171 (1953): 346.

Pauling L., Corey R. "A Proposed Structure of the Nucleic Acids." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 39.2 (1953): 84—97.

Prusiner S.B., Scott M.R. "Genetics of Prions." Annual Review of Genetics 31 (1997): 139—175.

Strasser B.J. "A World in One Dimension: Pauling, Crick and the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology." History and Philosophy of Life Sciences 28 (2006): 491—512.

Valley C.M., Pertz L.M., Balakumaran B.S., Willard H.F. "Chromosome-Wide, Allele-Specific Analysis of the Histone Code of the Human X Chromosome." Human Molecular Genetics 15 (2006): 2335—2347.

Watson J., Crick F. "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Desoxyribose Nucleic Acid." Nature 171 (1953): 737—738.

 

 

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Волошин, М. Ю. Интерпретация генома как текста: основания и исторические предпосылки [Электронный ресурс] / М.Ю. Волошин // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2015. — Т. 10. — Вып. 1: Пространство и время текста — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast10-1.2015.103.

 

 

 

 

 

Voloshin M.Yu.

Interpretation of Genome as Text: Basis and Historical Background

 

Mikhail Yu. Voloshin, Bachelor student at Philosophical Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University

E-mail: allrour95@rambler.ru

 

In this article, I concern issues arisen by a widespread interpretation of genome as a textual entity and its functioning as a textual code. I maintain that this analogy is not just a transposition of a model from one scientific area to another, but it is based on an essential resemblance between genomic structure and that of a text. My subject of study is, therefore, a concept of gene in different theoretical contexts and variations of its representation in textual form. To deal with this subject I used comparative methods elaborated by the history of science and H. Rickert’s conception of “ultimate things” as a logical and historiographical instrument.

In order to prove my opinion, I would like to consider the historical development of genetics since Mendel to figure out a role of the concept of gene in scientific research. Studying some key scientific papers of a period between 1865 and 1953, I found out that a concept of gene implicitly contained two different aspects. First of them I call a “material” one: it relates to a real physical object of unknown origin which is responsible for heredity. The second aspect is an “informational” one: it relates to an ability of gene to serve as a piece of hereditary information.

From that point of view, a discovery made in 1953 by Watson and Crick has totally broken a linkage between these aspects. A nucleotide is a minimal physical object that can mutate or descend as a whole, but it makes no sensible information since it cannot encode anything being alone. I claim that in this moment appears a possibility to work with informational aspect separately from physical nature of nucleic acid, and scientists immediately used a textual analogy for this work. My principal thesis is that informational aspect of gene is not something scientists came up with to make beautiful analogies, but it is something discovered by scientists.

Having examined some scientific papers after 1953, I came to my other thesis, which is that textual analogy appeared to be very productive in solving problems of genetics. It played a key role in decoding a genetic code, which turned out to have syntax, semantics and even punctuation. It provided a possibility for sequencing. However, at the end of 20th century we may observe a shift in research activities: most popular researches are that of a dimensional structure of DNAs, RNAs and proteins. These structures somehow relate to information, but textual interpretation is not relevant there.

My conclusion is that textual interpretation is a consequence of all historical development of genetics. It is absurd to claim that genome is a text, but such interpretation has strong basis in real nature of genetic code. However, now scientists must take into consideration a lot more than linear sequence of symbols.

 

Keywords: DNA, RNA, genetics, genetic code, genome, information, semantics, syntax, text.

 

References: 

Avery O., Macleod C., McCarty M. "Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III." Journal of Experimental Medicine 79 (1944): 137—158.

Benzer S. "The Elementary Units of Heredity." The Chemical Basis of Heredity. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins Press, 1957, pp. 70—93.

Benzer S., Champe S. "A Change from Nonsense to Sense in the Genetic Code." Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sceinces, USA 48 (1962): 1114—1121.

Crick F. "On Protein Synthesis." The Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 12 (1958): 138—163.

Crow E.W., Crow J.F. "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the Chromosome Theory of Heredity." Genetics 160 (2002): 1—4.

Dawkins R. A Devil’s Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science and Love. Moscow: AST Publisher, 2013. (In Russian).

Demerec M. "What Is A Gene?." Journal of Heredity 24 (1933): 368—378.

Frank-Kamenetsky M.D. Queen of a Life Cell: From the Structure of DNA to Biotechnological Revolution. Moscow: AST-PRESS KNIGA Publisher, 2010. (In Russian).

Gamow G. "Possible Relation between Desoxyribonucleic Acids and Protein Structures." Nature 173 (1954): 318.

Gamow G., Ycas M. "Statistical Correlation of Protein and Ribonucleic Acids Composition." Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sceinces, USA 41 (1955): 1011—1019.

Garrod A. "The Incidence of Alkaptonuria: A Study in Chemical Individuality." Lancet 2 (1902): 1616—1620.

Golubovsky M.D. Age of Genetics: Evolution of Ideas and Concepts. St. Petersburg: Borey Art Publisher, 2000. (In Russian).

Jacob F., Monod J. "Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms in the Synthesis of Proteins." Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (1961): 318—356.

Kol’tsov N.K. "Physicochemical Bases of Morphology." Organisation of the Cell. Collection of Experimental Researches, Articles and Reports. Moscow: Biomedgiz Publisher, 1936. (In Russian).

Lubischew A.A. On the Nature of Hereditary Factors (News of Biological Scientific Research Institute under Perm State University). Perm: Permpoligraf Publisher, 1925. (In Russian).

Mendel G. Experiments on Plant Hybridisation. Moscow: OGIZ-Sel’khozgiz Publisher, 1935. (In Russian).

Morgan T.G. The Physical Basis of Heredity. Moscow and Petrograd: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo Publisher, 1924 (In Russian).

Morgan T.H. "Croonian Lecture. On the Mechanism of Heredity." Proceedings of the Royal Society 94 (1922): 162—197.

Nazarov V.I. Non-darwinian Evolution: The Change of Evolutionary Model. Moscow: LKI Publisher, 2007. (In Russian).

Nirenberg M. "The Genetic Code. Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1968." Nobel Lectures: Physiology or Medicine (1962—1970). Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1972, pp. 372—395.

Pauling L., Corey R. "A Proposed Structure of the Nucleic Acids." Nature 171 (1953): 346.

Pauling L., Corey R. "A Proposed Structure of the Nucleic Acids." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 39.2 (1953): 84—97.

Prusiner S.B., Scott M.R. "Genetics of Prions." Annual Review of Genetics 31 (1997): 139—175.

Rickert H. The Limits of Concept-formation in Natural Science. St. Petersburg: Nauka Publisher, 1997. (In Russian).

Stepin V.S. History and Philosophy of Science. Moscow: Akademichesky proekt Publisher, 2011. (In Russian).

Strasser B.J. "A World in One Dimension: Pauling, Crick and the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology." History and Philosophy of Life Sciences 28 (2006): 491—512.

Valley C.M., Pertz L.M., Balakumaran B.S., Willard H.F. "Chromosome-Wide, Allele-Specific Analysis of the Histone Code of the Human X Chromosome." Human Molecular Genetics 15 (2006): 2335—2347.

Vogel F., Motulsky A. Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches. Moscow: Mir Publisher, 1989, volume 1. (In Russian).

Watson J., Crick F. "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Desoxyribose Nucleic Acid." Nature 171 (1953): 737—738.

 

 

Cite MLA 7:

Voloshin, M. Yu. "Interpretation of Genome as Text: Basis and Historical Background." Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya: ‘Prostranstvo i vremya teksta’ [Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time: Space and Time of Text’]  10.1 (2015). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast10-1.2015.103>. (In Russian).

 

 


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