ISSN 2227-9490
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Problem Commission ‘ Chronobiology and Chronomedicine’, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian Philosophical Society

ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
 АЛЬМАНАХ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЕТЯХ 

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УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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Каспийский Диалог 2016



ЧЕЛОВЕК И СРЕДА ОБИТАНИЯ / MAN AND LIVING ENVIRONMENT / MENSCH UND LEBENSRAUM

»   2018. Том 16. Выпуск 1-2

DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11072

 Голубов Б.Н. 
Аномальный подъём уровня Каспийского моря и катастрофическое обмеление Аральского моря как результат дренирования Арала под плато Устюрт и в Каспий вследствие техногенных возмущений недр

Голубов Борис Николаевич  (1937—2017), кандидат геолого-минералогических наук, ведущий научный сотрудник, Институт динамики геосфер РАН, Институт океанологии РАН им. П.П.Ширшова, Москва
ORCID IDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6379-1765

Показано, что противофазное поведение уровней Аральского и Каспийского морей взаимно обусловлено техногенными возмущениями режима подземных вод региона. Сделаны выводы о том, что 1) подземная связь вод Аральского и Каспийского морей может осуществляться под плато Устюрт по карстовым пустотам в карбонатных среднемиоценовых отложениях и разновозрастным проницаемым водоносным горизонтам терригенных отложений; 2) подземные ядерные взрывы в сочетании с другими видами техногенного вмешательства в недра Арало-Каспийского региона спровоцировали подземное дренирование вод Арала в Каспий под плато Устюрт, а также вызвали фильтрационный перехват стока рек Амударьи и Сырдарьи на подступах к Аралу; обусловили резкие противофазные скачки уровней двух морей в 1969—1995 гг.; 3) залповый сброс вод Арала в Каспий после 1969 г. осуществлялся, вероятно, в основном по карстовым полостям в среднемиоценовых отложениях плато Устюрт; 4) дренирование вод Арала по проницаемым водоносным горизонтам терригенных отложений нижнего миоцена-олигоцена играло подчиненную роль.

Ключевые слова: Аральское море; Каспийское море; плато Устюрт; обмеление; подземные ядерные взрывы; подземные воды.

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Голубов, Б. Н. Аномальный подъём уровня Каспийского моря и катастрофическое обмеление Аральского моря как результат дренирования Арала под плато Устюрт и в Каспий вследствие техногенных возмущений недр [Электронный ресурс] / Б.Н. Голубов // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2018. — Т. 16. — Вып. 1—2. — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.72. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11072.




DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11072


Golubov B.N. The Abnormal Rise of the Caspian sea Level and Catastrophic Desiccation of the Aral Sea as a Result of the Aral Sea Draining under the Ustyurt Plateau and in the Caspian Sea due to Subsurface Anthropogenic Perturbations

Boris N. Golubov  (1937—2017), Sc.D. (Geology and Mineralogy), Senior Researcher, Leading Researcher at RAS Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Moscow
ORCID IDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6379-1765

Since the 1960s, in the area of the seepage flow of the waters of Eurasia, shifts in the dynamics of all the shells of the geographic environment and the biosphere cycle, including its social link, which have been provoked by two unusual processes, are growing in strength. The first of these was the unprecedented exponential increase of Aral Sea shallowing. It originated in 1961—1963, at a speed of 18—25 cm/year, was interrupted in 1969 by a short rise pulse to 15 cm, and then again increased to 70—100 cm/year and became like a whirlpool when the drain valve operated at the bottom of the tank. The Aral Sea level has already fallen by more than 27 m, the water has retreated from the coast to 70—110 km, and sea has broken up into small reaches; thousands of square kilometers of its former bottom were desertified, to control which it was already required to separate the North Aral by a dam and implement a number of other expensive protective measures. The second process, which arose after the Aral Sea shallowing, was a sharp anomalous Caspian Sea level rise since 1977, which continued for 18 years. This sea-level rise turned out to be a record for its duration and speed for the entire period of instrumental observations of the level of the Caspian Sea, which have been under way since 1830. It unexpectedly arose contrary to forecasts and also had a negative impact on the economy of the coastal areas of the region, since its strategy was built judging from development of Caspian Sea shallowing process.

The subject of my review is antiphase Aral-Caspian levels oscillation. Based on the generalization of long-term observations of trends in Aral and Caspian sea level fluctuations and my own studies of this problem, I show there are an underground hydraulic link between the two seas beneath the Ustyurt Plateau, into which the underlying stratum of water-saturated rocks, especially the terrigenous rocks of the Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Alb-Cenomanian aquifer should also include. So, the antiphase behavior of the levels of the Aral and Caspian seas is mutually due to anthropogenic disturbances of the groundwater regime of the region. However, this is the result not of the of the Aral-Caspian irrigation development, but of underground nuclear explosions there. Since the mid-1960's, these explosions in the frame of the Caspian Sea were used to create underground tanks in salt domes, failed funnels on the Mangyshlak Peninsula, for deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust of the region. Underground nuclear explosions radically violated the fluid dynamics and geodynamic activity of the subsoil in the Astrakhan and Orenburg fields, as well as a number of other fields, the development of which was associated with the use of nuclear explosive technologies.

The originality of the aquiferous complex of the Miocene deposits of the Ustyurt Plateau is due to the porous, cavernous, karstic carbonate and terrigenous rocks composing it. These deposits are underlain by the regional fluids of the Paleogene clay, the surface of which lies in a number of cases at absolute elevations below the level of the Aral Sea (plus 54 m) and Caspian Sea (minus 28 m). Therefore, the waters of these seas penetrate deep into the land into the empty space of the Miocene deposits in the form of two ‘wedges’, the eastern (Pre-Aral) and western (Pre-Caspian), the outlines of which in stratigraphic horizons of the Miocene are determined by structural contour lines of plus 54 m and minus 28 m, respectively. Until the 1960s, these ‘wedges’ were separated by a natural bridge and the eastern ‘wedge’ remained suspended in relation to the western one. In the geological past, judging by the marks of the coastal sea terraces and the horizontal courses of karstic cavities of Mangyshlak and Ustyurt, the level of the Caspian rose, bridge disappeared and a direct underground hydraulic link between the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea was established. Therefore, remnants of the Caspian fossil fauna were found in separate layers of the Pliocene and Pleistocene developed in the Aral Sea near the eastern cliff of Ustyurt, and the inhabitants of underground waters were found in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Mangyshlak.

The resumption of such a connection in our days is possible if we destroy this bulkhead and thereby ensure the draining of the waters of the eastern ‘wedge’ of groundwater towards the Caspian Sea.

Thus, the features of neo-tectonic development in the Pliocene-Quaternary time of the structure of the layers of the Paleogene clay and several age generations of karst in the carbonate deposits of the Miocene Ustyurt and Mangyshlak created natural prerequisites for underground hydraulic communication between the Aral and Caspian waters, which occurred sporadically during the periods of maximum transgressions of the Caspian Sea and was is interrupted at the end of the Pleistocene. Today, powerful technogenic disturbances in the state of the Earth's interior and the regime of the underground hydrosphere once again provoked such a connection and caused the currently observed antiphase sharp jumps in the Aral and Caspian Sea levels, which obscured the effect of the climatic factor as one of the regulators of the water balance of these seas.

So, my conclusions are as follows:

(i) connection underground waters of the Aral and Caspian seas may be carried out under the Ustyurt Plateau and in the karst voids in carbonate and in middle Miocene sediments of different ages permeable aquifers clastic sediments4

(ii) underground nuclear explosions of the Aral-Caspian Region provoked the underground drainage of the waters of the Aral sea under the Ustyurt plateau to the Caspian sea. They became the reason of the filtration interception of the Amu Darya River and Syr Darya River discharge by on the outskirts of the Aral Sea, and became the reason of a sharp anti-phase jumps of the levels of the two seas in 1969—1995;

(iii) accidental discharge of water of the Aral Sea to the Caspian Sea since 1969 were probably mainly at karst cavities in mid-Miocene deposits of the Usturt Plateau;

(iv) Aral Sea waters drainage in Permeable aquifers clastic sediments of lower Miocene-Oligocene played a subordinate role.

Keywords: Aral Sea; Caspian Sea; Ustyurt Plateau; shallowing; underground nuclear explosions; underground water.

Cite MLA 7:

Golubov, B. N. "The Abnormal Rise of the Caspian sea Level and Catastrophic Desiccation of the Aral Sea as a Result of the Aral Sea Draining under the Ustyurt Plateau and in the Caspian Sea due to Subsurface Anthropogenic Perturbations." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 16.1—2 (2018). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.72>. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11072. (In Russian).

Список литературы / References