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ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

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Almanac Space and Time
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ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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СИСТЕМА КООРДИНАТ /COORDINATE SYSTEM /KOORDINATENSYSTEM

»   2018. Том 16. Выпуск 3-4

DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-12011

Геворкян С.Г., Геворкян И.С
Экоцид как высшая форма антропогенной экологической катастрофы. К постановке проблемы

      Геворкян Сергей Георгиевич, кандидат физико-математических наук, старший научный сотрудник, Научно-исследовательский институт оснований и подземных сооружений им. Н.М. Герсеванова, Москва 
ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7701-6209
E-mail: sergey-g-gevorkyan@j-spacetime.com; Sergev99@yandex.ru

      Геворкян Ирина Сергеевна, зооинженер, младший научный сотрудник ФБУН НИИ Дезинфектологии Роспотребнадзора, Москва
ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9350-9372
E-mail: irina-s-gevorkyan@j-spacetime.com; Irgev83@yandex.ru


      В статье представлено авторское понимание экоцида как высшей и самой опасной формы антропогенной экологической катастрофы. Авторы делают вывод о том, что, будучи инструментом таких тяжких преступлений против человечества, как геноцид и ксеноцид, уже по одной только этой причине экоцид является опаснейшим преступным деянием, выделяясь из всего ряда антропогенных экологических катастроф.

      Ключевые слова: враждебное воздействие на окружающую среду; экоцид; самоэкоцид; антропогенная природная катастрофа; геноцид; ксеноцид; ядерное оружие; геофизическое оружие; причинение неприемлемого ущерба; тактика «выжженной земли».

 
      Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:
Геворкян, С. Г., Геворкян, И. С. Экоцид как высшая форма антропогенной экологической катастрофы [Электронный ресурс] / С.Г. Геворкян, И.С. Геворкян // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2018. — Т. 16. — Вып. 3—4. DOI: 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-12011. Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-3_4.2018.11.





DOI: 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-12011

       Gevorkyan S.G., Gevorkyan I.SEcocide as the Highest Form of Anthropogenic Environmental Disasters. Towards the Problem Statement

       Sergey G. Gevorkyan, Ph.D. (Physics and Mathematics), Senior Researcher, Gersevanov Research Institute of Foundations and Underground Structures, Moscow
E-mail: sergey-g-gevorkyan@j-spacetime.com; Sergev99@yandex.ru

      Irina S. Gevorkyan, Master of Animal Science, Junior Scientific Researcher at Scientific Research Institute for Disinfectology of Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Moscow
E-mail: irina-s-gevorkyan@j-spacetime.com; Irgev83@yandex.ru

       The feature of modern civilization is that mankind uses all knowledge primarily for military purposes. To date, mankind has accumulated enough knowledge about nature and its laws, weather and climate to use it for hostile environmental modification, for causing unacceptable damage to the enemy. The fact that the world community and international law condemn ecocide as the gravest crime against peace and humanity does not guarantee us from using means and technics of hostile environment modification for geopolitical and military purposes. The threat of environmental degradation in the world and natural resources depletion also makes it imperative to protect nature from anthropogenic environmental disasters. That’s why the subject matter of our study is ecocide taken in conjunction with two other extreme forms of intentional actions to destroy a people in whole or in part (genocide and xenocide; we defined last-mentioned not by Orson Scott Card, but by Dr. Olga N. Tynyanova, as destruction of all social agents and/or their social positions, which differ in some (any) grounds from ones of the agents that control this or that territory). For our research purposes, we used general scientific and case study methods, problem and source analysis, as well as historical-genetic approach.

       Analyzing several cases of hostile environment modification, mainly in modern and contemporary times, we have identified its interconnectedness with genocide and xenocide, of which it actually is a tool. In this sense, since ecocide is the intentional damage to the habitat of those against whom it is directed, we believe there is no ecocide that would not be military. In fact, ecocide is the ultimate form of scorched earth policy. Essentially, ecocide as such (ecocide properly) is a geophysical warfare, the main means of which is geophysical weapons, i.e. weapons, the destructive effect of which is based on using natural processes and phenomena caused artificially for military purposes. Depending on the environment, in which these processes occur, ones identify lithospheric, hydrospheric, atmospheric and geocosmic weapons. The means by which geophysical damaging factors are stimulated may be different, but the energy expended by these means is always substantially less than the energy released by nature as a result of the geophysical process. Geoscientist Gordon J. F. MacDonald (1929—2002) noted on this subject in 1968: “The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of the environmental instabilities to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly greater amounts of energy.”

       Lithospheric (geological) weapons have a damaging effect on such catastrophic processes as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and displacement of geological formations. The source of the released energy is the zone of increased geodynamic stresses in the lithosphere (Earth crust) in tectonically active regions. It is assumed that during periods of natural activation, on the eve of the eruption, volcanoes that had previously been sleeping are especially sensitive to attempts to activate them. With the help of remote seismic sounding means, it is possible to predict the possibility of awakening the volcano and thereby determine the short time interval when the volcano will be sufficiently ready to be exposed to it in order to cause the enemy unacceptable damage.

      For its destructive purposes, hydrosphere (hydrological) weapon uses energy, which is released under the impact not only nuclear weapons but also large charges of conventional explosives on water resources (sea, lakes, rivers), and also as a result of hydraulic structures explosions. The damaging factors of hydrospheric weapons are release waves, tidal waves and targeted forced flooding of areas. The means of such a hostile impact can be tsunamis or directional tidal waves, artificially caused on the edge of the continental shelf. Catastrophic waves caused by dropping large volumes of rocks or glaciers into the ocean, as well as melting the Arctic ice are of great danger (it is enough to set off thermonuclear burst of only 1 Mt of TNT over the Arctic ice cover to melt 10 billion tons of ice).

       Atmospheric (meteorological) weapons are to date the most developed type of geophysical ones (theoretical studies and experiments on effects on physical processes in the atmosphere have been carried out since 1946). Affecting factors of such weapons are atmospheric processes and related weather and climate phenomena.

       Geocosmic (ozone) weapons are based on the use of cosmic radiation energy. By exploding Freon-charge missile reentry vehicles in the stratosphere, it is possible an artificial disruption in the designated areas of a continuous stratospheric ozone layer, which absorbs the harsh ultraviolet radiation. Even with a short-term appearance of ‘windows’ in the ozone layer, there is a mortal danger to living organisms. Currently, the possibilities of targeting the Earth’s ionosphere are being actively studied (in particular, in the framework of HAARP) in order to disrupt radio communications and interfere with radar observations in the assigned area by artificially causing magnetic storms and auroras.
      
       So, ecocide has the following features: (a) it has a predetermined, deliberate focus on causing the greatest damage to the human environment, (b) it is able to cover large areas (territories), (c) it is able to last for a long time, (d) it leads to severe, long-term and, most importantly, unpredictable consequences, and (e) it is a powerful tool of genocide and xenocide. Hence, it also follows that: 
 
        (i) any prolonged war or war being waged in a vast theater or several theaters is an act of ecocide, since the destruction of urban infrastructure (especially the production one) and the harm caused to agricultural land (and, therefore, destruction and the complete devastation of soil) cause significant harm to the environment; 
 
       (ii) not only the aggressor/occupier, but also the victim of aggression/occupation can use ecocide as a scorched-earth tactic. In this latter case, ecocide takes the form of a self-ecocide; 
 
        (iii) nuclear explosion and nuclear contamination, as well as aggressive large-scale applied herbicides and defoliants still remain the main sources, means and triggers of hostile environmental modification and ecocide; 
 
        (iv) energy sufficient to initiate a catastrophic natural scenario is not enough to effectively manage this scenario after it has been initiated. This makes geophysical warfare and its consequences for the survival of mankind unpredictable.
       
       Our conclusion about urgent need to develop an integrated system of measures to ensure the environmental safety is also significant. We support that in this sphere, special attention should be paid to developing (a) methods for adequately assessing the levels of unacceptable threats (in particular, rejecting the essentially propagandistic concept of ‘nuclear winter’ in favor of the ideas of Russian atmospheric physicist Academician Kirill Y. Kondratyev, who completely refuted this theory) and (b) methods of prevention and protection against artificial caused by environmental disasters.
 
        Keywords: hostile environmental modification; ecocide; self-ecocide; anthropogenic environmental disaster; genocide; xenocide; nuclear weapons; geophysical weapons; causing unacceptable damage; scorched-earth policy. 

        Cite MLA 7:
Gevorkyan, S. G., and I. S. Gevorkyan. "Ecocide as the Highest Form of Anthropogenic Environmental Disasters. Towards the Problem Statement." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 16.3—4 (2018). DOI: 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-12011. Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-3_4.2018.11>. (In Russian).


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